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what is robots txt

What is a Robots.txt File?

In the digital landscape, the robots.txt file is crucial in guiding web crawlers and search engines in interacting with your website. Find out with seobase what robots.txt is and how to utilize it effectively is essential for website management and search engine optimization (SEO).


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What Is Robots.txt?

The robots.txt file is a simple text file part of a website's root directory. Its primary function is to instruct web crawlers, automated scripts used by search engines like Google, on how to crawl and index pages on a website.

Why Is Robots.txt Important?

A properly configured robots.txt file can prevent search engines from accessing parts of your site that are not intended for public view, such as admin pages or certain directories. It can also help to optimize the crawling process by guiding crawlers to the most important content, improving your site's SEO performance.


The Structure of a Robots.txt File

The structure of a robots.txt file is simple yet powerful, designed to provide clear instructions to web crawlers about which parts of a website they can and cannot access. Understanding this structure is essential for website owners and SEO professionals. Here's an overview of the key components that make up the structure of a robots.txt file:

Basic Format

A robots.txt file is made up of records, each containing two key elements: the user-agent line and one or more directives (such as Allow or Disallow). Here's the basic format:

User-agent: [user-agent name]
Disallow: [URL path]
Allow: [URL path]


  • User-Agent Line: This line specifies the web crawler to which the following rule(s) apply. You can target a specific crawler with its name (like Googlebot) or use an asterisk (*) as a wildcard to apply the rule to all crawlers.
User-agent: *


  • Disallow Directive: This is used to tell a crawler not to access certain parts of your site. If you want to block access to a specific folder or page, you would use the Disallow directive followed by the path you want to block.
Disallow: /private/
  • Allow Directive: The Allow directive is used to specify which areas of your site crawlers are allowed to access. This is particularly useful for granting access to a specific file or folder within a disallowed directory.
Allow: /public/


  • You can include comments in your robots.txt file by using the hash symbol (#). Anything following this symbol on the same line is ignored by the crawlers.
# This is a comment

Multiple User-Agents and Directives

  • You can specify different sets of instructions for different crawlers by including multiple user-agent lines, each followed by its own set of directives.
User-agent: Googlebot
Disallow: /no-google/

User-agent: Bingbot
Disallow: /no-bing/

Empty or Missing Robots.txt

  • An empty robots.txt file, or the absence of one, implies that all web crawlers are welcome to crawl all parts of the site.


  • It's important to note that the Disallow directive does not guarantee that a page or directory will not be indexed; it only instructs crawlers not to crawl those areas. Pages can still be indexed if there are links pointing to them from other sites.
  • The robots.txt file should be placed in the root directory of your website, making it accessible via https://www.yourwebsite.com/robots.txt.

robots txt definition

How to Create a Robots.txt File?

Creating a robots.txt file is a straightforward process that can be done in a few simple steps. It's an essential tool for website owners and SEO practitioners, as it guides search engine bots on how to crawl and index pages on a website. Here's how you can create a robots.txt file:

Step 1: Open a Plain Text Editor

Start by opening a plain text editor on your computer. This could be Notepad on Windows, TextEdit on macOS (in plain text mode), or any other basic text editor that doesn't add formatting to the file. It's important to use a plain text editor because formatting from programs like Microsoft Word can cause issues.

Step 2: Define User-Agents

The first line of a robots.txt file usually identifies the user-agent. The user-agent is the search engine bot you want to communicate with. If you want your rules to apply to all bots, you can use an asterisk (*). For example:

User-agent: *

Alternatively, you can target specific bots by using their names, like Googlebot for Google's crawler.

Step 3: Add Directives (Allow or Disallow)

After specifying the user-agent, the next step is to add directives. The two primary types of directives are Allow and Disallow. Disallow tells the bot which pages or sections of your site should not be crawled, while Allow is used to specify what can be crawled. For instance:

Disallow: /private/
Allow: /public/

This example instructs bots not to crawl anything in the /private/ directory but allows them to crawl everything in the /public/ directory.

Step 4: Add Additional Rules as Needed

You can add as many rules as you need, specifying different directives for different user-agents. For complex websites, you might have several rules targeting different parts of your site.

Step 5: Save the File Correctly

Once you have written your rules, save the file as robots.txt. Make sure that the file is named exactly like this — all lowercase and with the .txt extension.

Step 6: Upload the File to Your Website's Root Directory

The robots.txt file needs to be placed in the root directory of your website. This means it should be accessible from https://www.yourwebsite.com/robots.txt. You can upload it using FTP, SFTP, or any file management tool your hosting service provides.

Step 7: Test Your Robots.txt File

After uploading the file, it’s important to test it to make sure it works as expected. You can use tools like the Google Search Console's robots.txt Tester to check for errors and confirm that the file is blocking and allowing access as intended.

Step 8: Monitor and Update As Necessary

Your website will evolve, and so should your robots.txt file. Regularly review and update it to reflect changes in your website's structure and content.

robots.txt example

Robots.txt Example

Here's a basic example of a robots.txt file:

User-agent: *
Disallow: /private/
Allow: /public/

This example tells all crawlers (indicated by *) that they should not access anything in the "private" directory, but they can crawl everything in the "public" directory.

Testing Your Robots.txt File

Testing your robots.txt file is an essential step in ensuring that it effectively communicates your crawling preferences to search engine bots. Proper testing can prevent potential issues like unintentionally blocking important pages from being indexed or failing to restrict access to certain parts of your site. Here's how to test your robots.txt file:

1. Use Online Robots.txt Testers

  • Google Search Console's Robots.txt Tester: Google provides a tool within the Search Console that allows you to test your robots.txt file. This tool not only checks the syntax of the file but also lets you test specific URLs to see if they are blocked by your robots.txt rules.
  • Other Online Testing Tools: There are various other online tools available for testing robots.txt files. These tools often provide functionality similar to Google's tester, allowing you to check if a particular user-agent can access a URL on your site.

2. Manual Testing

  • Access the File Directly: You can manually check your robots.txt file by navigating to https://www.yourwebsite.com/robots.txt. Ensure that the file is accessible and the content is correctly displayed.
  • Verify Rules: Manually read through the file to verify that your rules are structured correctly, with the appropriate Disallow and Allow directives for the intended user-agents.

3. Test with Specific URLs

  • If you have particular pages or directories you want to block or allow, use the testing tools to input these URLs. The tool will indicate whether the specified user-agents can crawl these URLs based on your robots.txt rules.

4. Checking for Crawl Errors

  • After implementing your robots.txt file, monitor your site's crawl error reports in tools like Google Search Console. These reports can help you identify if search engines are unable to access important content on your site due to robots.txt restrictions.

5. Real-Time Monitoring

  • Regularly monitor the logs of your web server for search engine bot activity. This can give you real-world insight into how bots are interacting with your site in relation to your robots.txt directives.

6. Iterative Testing

  • Robots.txt testing isn’t a one-time task. As you update or modify your website, your robots.txt file might need adjustments. Regularly test the file after making changes to ensure that it’s still functioning as intended.

Key Points to Remember

  • Crawler Compliance is Voluntary: Keep in mind that adherence to robots.txt directives is voluntary. Well-behaved crawlers like those from major search engines will follow the rules, but the file has no power to enforce these rules.
  • Use with Caution: Overly restrictive robots.txt rules can inadvertently block search engines from indexing important content, so use Disallow directives cautiously.
  • No Impact on External Links: Robots.txt does not prevent external sites from linking to your content. Even disallowed pages can appear in search results if linked from other sites.

Advanced Use of Robots.txt

The robots.txt file, while simple in structure, can be used in advanced ways to optimize your website's interaction with search engines and improve your site's SEO performance. Here are some advanced uses and considerations for your robots.txt file:

1. Managing Crawl Budget

  • Crawl Budget Optimization: For large websites, managing the crawl budget is crucial. The crawl budget refers to the number of pages a search engine bot will crawl on your site within a given time. By using Disallow directives strategically, you can prevent search engines from wasting crawl budget on irrelevant or low-value pages, ensuring that important content gets crawled and indexed more frequently.

2. Preventing Indexing of Duplicate Content

  • Handling Duplicate Content: Robots.txt can be used to block search engines from accessing duplicate content on your site. This can include printer-friendly versions of pages, certain parameters or session IDs in URLs that generate duplicate content, and more. However, remember that Disallow doesn't prevent indexing; it only prevents crawling. For preventing indexing, use the noindex directive in meta tags or HTTP headers.

3. Protecting Sensitive Content

  • Securing Sensitive Areas: While robots.txt is not a security tool, it can be used to discourage search engines from accessing sensitive areas of your site, such as admin pages or development environments. But, it should not be your only line of defense since the file is public and can be viewed by anyone.

4. Staging Environment Management

  • Handling Staging Environments: If you have a staging site for testing, you can use robots.txt to completely block search engines from crawling this version of your site. This can prevent staging content from being indexed and appearing in search results.

5. Controlling Search Engine Bot Traffic

  • Regulating Bot Traffic: In some cases, you might want to reduce the load that search engine bots put on your server. While you can't directly control the crawl rate in robots.txt, you can indirectly influence it by limiting what the bots are allowed to crawl.

6. Experimenting with Search Result Snippets

  • Directives for Snippets: Some search engines support directives in robots.txt that control how your content is displayed in search results, such as preventing the display of snippets or cached pages.

7. Utilizing Sitemap References

  • Including Sitemap Information: You can use robots.txt to specify the location of your XML sitemaps. This can be helpful for search engines to discover and crawl all important pages on your site. The syntax is simple: Sitemap: https://www.yourwebsite.com/sitemap.xml.

8. Combining with Meta Tags and HTTP Headers

  • Complementary Use with Meta Tags and HTTP Headers: For finer control over how individual pages are indexed, combine the use of robots.txt with noindex meta tags or X-Robots-Tag HTTP headers. This combination allows for a more nuanced approach to controlling search engine behavior.

Best Practices and Considerations

  • Always test any changes to your robots.txt file to ensure they have the intended effect.
  • Remember that robots.txt is a publicly accessible file; don't use it to hide information you want to keep private.
  • Keep an eye on SEO news and updates, as search engines occasionally update how they interpret robots.txt files.
  • Regularly review your robots.txt file, especially after major site updates or changes in your SEO strategy.

By understanding and utilizing these advanced aspects of robots.txt files, you can more effectively guide search engine bots, which can lead to improved site performance in search engine results.

Common Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

When working with robots.txt files, even small mistakes can have significant impacts on your website's search engine performance. Being aware of common pitfalls and knowing how to avoid them is crucial. Here are some common mistakes made with robots.txt files and tips on how to avoid them:

1. Blocking Important Content

  • Mistake: Accidentally disallowing search engines from crawling important pages or directories.
  • How to Avoid: Carefully review your Disallow directives. Test your robots.txt file using tools like Google's Robots Testing Tool to ensure you're not blocking content you want indexed.

2. Using Incorrect Syntax

  • Mistake: Syntax errors in the robots.txt file, such as typos, incorrect use of directives, or formatting issues.
  • How to Avoid: Follow the standard syntax for robots.txt files closely. Use online validators to check for syntax errors. Remember that the robots.txt file is case-sensitive and that spaces and line breaks matter.

3. Assuming Robots.txt is for Security

  • Mistake: Relying on robots.txt to hide sensitive information or private areas of a website.
  • How to Avoid: Understand that robots.txt is a publicly visible file and doesn't provide security. To protect sensitive data, use proper authentication and authorization methods.

4. Overusing the Robots.txt File

  • Mistake: Attempting to use robots.txt for tasks it's not designed for, like preventing indexation of specific pages.
  • How to Avoid: Use robots.txt for controlling crawling, and use meta tags (noindex) for controlling indexation. Remember that Disallow in robots.txt does not prevent a page from being indexed if there are external links to it.

5. Forgetting About the Crawl Budget

  • Mistake: Not considering the crawl budget for larger websites, leading to inefficient crawling of important pages.
  • How to Avoid: Use the robots.txt file to disallow low-value or duplicate content pages to ensure search engines spend more time crawling important parts of your site.

6. Neglecting Regular Updates

  • Mistake: Not updating the robots.txt file when the website structure changes or new content is added.
  • How to Avoid: Regularly review and update your robots.txt file to reflect changes in your site’s structure and content priorities.

7. Lack of Testing After Changes

  • Mistake: Making changes to the robots.txt file without testing its impact.
  • How to Avoid: Always test your robots.txt file after making changes, using tools like Google Search Console. Monitor the site's indexing status and search engine crawl reports regularly.

8. Using Comments Incorrectly

  • Mistake: Misunderstanding the use of comments or using them in a way that confuses crawlers.
  • How to Avoid: Use the hash symbol (#) for comments, and ensure they are on separate lines from directives. Comments are for human understanding and are ignored by crawlers.

9. Ignoring Case Sensitivity

  • Mistake: Not realizing that directives and paths in robots.txt are case-sensitive.
  • How to Avoid: Match the case of your URLs and file paths exactly in your robots.txt file. For example, /Folder and /folder are considered different by crawlers.

10. Misunderstanding Wildcards

  • Mistake: Incorrectly using wildcards or not using them where they could be beneficial.
  • How to Avoid: Understand how wildcards (*) work in robots.txt files and use them appropriately to match patterns in URLs.

The Robots Txt Definition in a Nutshell

In summary, the robots.txt file is a crucial tool for website management and SEO. It helps control how web crawlers interact with your site, ensuring that they index your most important content while staying away from private areas.

Understanding and implementing a well-configured robots.txt file can significantly impact your website's visibility and performance in search results. Regular updates and testing are key to maintaining its effectiveness.

A regular website audit by an advanced SEO site audit tool will be the best action a webmaster can take to keep up-to-date with issues related to robots.txt files.

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